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قديم 07-10-2013, 11:16 PM   المشاركة رقم: 1
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الكاتب:
بنعيسى زغبوش
اللقب:
أستاذ جامعي باحث
الصورة الرمزية
 
الصورة الرمزية بنعيسى زغبوش

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المنتدى : مقالات علمية منشورة
افتراضي Leftward spatial bias in children’s drawing placement: Hemispheric activation versus directional hypotheses

مرجع هذا المقال:
- Picard, D., Zarhbouch, B. (2014): Leftward spatial bias in children's drawing placement: Hemispheric activation versus directional hypotheses, Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 1 (vol. 19), 96-112. (Published online: 12 Nov 2013)

Leftward spatial bias in children’s drawing placement: Hemispheric activation versus directional hypotheses

Delphine Picarda, & Benaissa Zarhbouchb
a Aix Marseille Université, Centre de Recherche PsyClé EA 3273 & Institut Universitaire de France
b Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Laboratoire LASCO, Fès, Maroc

Abstract
A leftward spatial bias in drawing placement was demonstrated by Heller (1991) using the draw-a-person test with right-handed American children aged 4-14 years. No such bias was observed in left-handed children who are assumed to be less lateralized than their right-handed peers. According to Heller, the leftward spatial bias is primarily a reflection of the right hemisphere specialization for spatial processing. However, an alternative explanation in terms of directional trends may also be put forward. In the present study, we first confirm Heller’s findings of a handedness effect on drawing placement using the draw-a-tree task with a large sample of right- and left-handed French children aged 5-15 years (Exp 1). We then provide evidence that a similar leftward bias occurs in right-handed Moroccan children aged 7-11 years with opposite ****** directionality and opposite preferred drawing movement directions (i.e., right-to-left directional trends) to the those of right-handed French children (Exp 2). In both experiments, age as a crude indicator of reading/writing experience was not significantly correlated with measures of drawing displacement. Taken together, these findings suggest that directionality trends arising from learned cultural habits and motor preferences play little role in determining spatial bias in the centering of a single object drawn on a page. Rather, there may be a cerebral origin for drawing single objects slightly on the left side of the graphic space
Keywords: spatial bias, drawing, children, culture


Spatial bias has been shown to occur in brain-intact subjects performing a variety of visual-spatial grapho-motor tasks, such as tasks involving line bisection (see Jewell & McCourt, 2000, for a review), the illustration of spatial/temporal events (e.g., drawing active sentences with directional actions, Maass & Russo, 2003 ; drawing objects in spatial relation, Vaid, Rhodes, Tosun, & Eslami, 2011), or even the drawing of single objects on the page (e.g., Heller, 1991; Barrett, Kim, Crucian, & Heilman, 2002). A common finding is that right-handed subjects from Western countries tend to bisect lines leftward from their actual center (Bradshaw, Nathan, Nettleton, Wilson, & Pierson, 1987). While illustrating spatial/temporal events, they tend to locate the sentence subject to the left of the object (Barrett & Craver-Lemley, 2008; Chatterjee, Southwood, & Basilico, 1999; Chatterjee, Maher, & Heilman, 1995; Geminiani, Bisiach, Berti, & Rusconi, 1995), and tend to locate a near object to the front left of a farer object (Braine, Schauble, Kugelmass, & Winter, 1993; Vaid et al., 2011). Finally, when asked to draw single objects on a page, they tend to draw objects with a leftward facing (Karev, 1999; Picard, 2011; Kebbe & Vinter, 2012; van Sommers, 1984; Viggiano & Vannucci, 2002), and tend to draw objects slightly leftward from the actual center of the page (Heller, 1991; Barrett et al., 2002; Barrett & Craver-Lemley, 2008).
For long, the leftward spatial bias has been accounted for by the hemispheric specialization hypothesis (Bradshaw et al., 1987), which posits that the spatial nature of the task to-be-performed induces a preferential activation of the specialized (right) hemisphere, which in turn leads to an enhancement of the left perceived hemispace, thereby inducing an attentional bias to the left (Kinsbourne, 1970). For instance, Heller (1991) conducted a study in which she used the draw-a-person test as a mean to assess implicit visuo-spatial bias in American children aged 4-14 years. She found that, irrespective of age, right-handed children demonstrated a bias toward the left side of the graphic space, contralateral to the specialized hemisphere. By contrast, no such bias was observed in left-handed children, a finding congruent with the view that left-handers are usually less lateralized than right-handers (see Bradshaw & Nettleton, 1983 for a review). Accordingly, Heller suggested that the leftward bias of right-handers “is primarily a reflection of right-hemisphere specialization for spatial processing” (p.157)












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activation, bias, children’s, directional, drawing, hemispheric, hypotheses, leftward, placement:, spatial, versus

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